Black Pine as The Black Death

The Local People’s Attitudes towards Black Pine Afforestation in the Slovenian Karst in the 19th And 20th Century

  • Meta Remec
Keywords: environmental history, the Karst, forest, afforestation, black pine, monoculture plantations, non-native tree species

Abstract

The contribution focuses on the attitudes of the local population towards the afforestation with black pine and the creation of large-scale non-native monoculture plantations in the Slovenian Karst. The process, which started at the initiative of the forestry profession and the authorities, provoked considerable opposition from landowners and users of common land who did not want forests there, as they saw them as contrary to their economic interests and established practices. As long as afforestation took place on municipal land, the population still supported it, in principle. However, the encroachment on private land provoked resistance. The locals increasingly resisted the hard labour as well as deliberately destroyed the plantations. After World War II, however, the authorities expected a change in this attitude, as reforestation was ascribed with an extremely strong ideological component. The reforestation of the Karst was supposed to become a symbol of the struggle for a better future, a proof of the power and will of the new society, capable of reversing the consequences of centuries of foreign exploitation in just a few years. Eventually, black pine indeed became an integral part of the landscape and identity of the local population. However, the excitement among the people quickly subsided, as black pine failed to deliver the promised returns and benefits. For the landowners, reforestation, which was considered a success story by forestry experts, represented a disaster and a reason for economic ruin, while accelerated overgrowth mainly took place due to the rapid industrialisation and abandonment of agricultural land.

References

Bárány-Kevei, Ilona. »Human Impact on Hungarian Karst Terrains, with Special Regard to Silviculture.« Acta carsologica 32, 2 (2003): 175–85, https://doi.org/10.3986/ac.v32i2.346.

Blažič, Marjan. Borov sprevodni prelec. Ljubljana: [samozal.], 1959.

Brock, Emiliy K. »New Patterns in Old Places. Forest History for the Global Present.« V: Andrew C. Isenberg, ur. The Oxford Handbook of Environmental History, 154–77. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195324907.001.0001.

Culiberg, Metka. »Vegetacija Krasa v preteklosti.« V: Mauro Hrvatin, ur. Kras: [trajnostni razvoj kraške pokrajine], 100, 101. Ljubljana: Založba ZRC, 2008.

Fras, Stanislav. Pomen črnega bora za pogozdovanje Krasa in njegovi abiotični ter biotični škodljivi spremljevalci. Ljubljana: [samozal.], 1959.

Gams, Ivan in Matej Gabrovec. »Land Use and Human Impact in the Dinaric Karst.« International Journal of Speleology 28, št. 1 (1999): 55–70, http://dx.doi.org/10.5038/1827-806X.28.1.4.

Gams, Ivan. »Sistemi prilagoditve primoskega dinarskega krasa na kemtijsko rabo tal.« Geografski zbornik 31, (1991): 5–106.

Grove, A. T. in Oliver Rackham. The Nature of Mediterranean Europe. An Ecological History. New Haven, London: Yale University Press, 2001.

Hufnagl, Leopold. Splošni del gospodarskih načrtov za kočevsko gospostvo 1894. Ljubljana: Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za gozdarstvo in obnovljive gozdne vire, 2002.

Jurhar, Franjo, Jože Miklavžič, Franjo Sevnik in Bogdan Žagar. Gozd na krasu Slovenskega primorja. Ljubljana: Tehniški muzej Slovenije, 1963.

Kranjc, Andrej. »Dinaric Karst: an Example of Deforestation and Desertification of Limestone Terrain.« V: Deforestation Around the World, 73–94. Rijeka: InTech, 2012, https://doi.org/10.5772/34275.

Mlinšek, Dušan. »Beseda o knjigi.« V: Franjo Kordiš, Dinarski jelovo bukovi gozdovi v Sloveniji, 6, 7. Ljubljana: Univerza v Ljubljani, Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za gozdarstvo in gozdna gospodarstva, 1993.

Nicod, Jean. »Understanding Environmental Problems in Dinaric Karst.« V: Fizična geografija pred novimi izzivi. Znanstvei simpozij ob 80-letnici akademika prof. dr. Ivana Gamsa. Ljubljana: oddelek za geografijo Filozofske fakultete, 2003.

Panjek, Aleksander. »Against the Desert in the Karst: a Paradigm-shift from Ruined Landscape to Cultural Savannah,« Ekonomska i ekohistorija 14, št. 1 (2018): 52–71.

Panjek, Aleksander. Kulturna krajina in okolje Krasa: o rabi naravnih virov v novem veku. Koper: Založba Univerze na Primorskem, 2015.

Perko, Franc. Od ogolelega do gozdnatega krasa: pogozdovanje krasa. Ljubljana: Zveza gozdarskih društev Slovenije - Gozdarska založba: Jutro, 2016.

Rubbia, Konrad. Petindvajset let pogozdovanja Krasa na Kranjskem: poročilo komisije za pogozdovanje Krasa v vojvodini Kranjski o delovanju, od leta 1886 do konca leta 1911: z dvema podobama. Ljubljana: Pogozdovalna komisija, 1912.

Sanković, Petra. Možnost gojenja izbranih listavcev v vrzelih v nasadih črnega bora na Krasu. Ljubljana: [P. Sanković], 2015.

Šlander, Jože. Zaštita šuma u Sloveniji (stanje i problematika), 1948. Dostopno na: https://www.zdravgozd.si/dat/pdp/19480930.pdf. Pridobljeno 8. 9. 2021.

Zorn, Matija, Peter Kumer in Mateja Ferk. »Od gozda do gozda ali kje je goli, kamniti Kras?.« Kronika 63, št. 3 (2015): 561–74.

Published
2021-10-08
Section
Articles