Skrb v službi vojne: bolniške strežnice na Kranjskem

  • Irena Selišnik University of Ljubljana
Keywords: bolniške sestre, strežnice, prva svetovna vojna, ženske, poklic, morala, nurses, care attendants, World War I, women, profession, morality



Even before World War I an ongoing discussion took place in Austria whether medical nurses should be mobilised to take care for wounded soldiers in case of extensive military conflict, natural disasters or epidemics. After the outbreak of the Great War the Austrian authorities encouraged the professionalisation of nursing, and especially women were invited to join. Special conditions for schooling were enacted and the first courses were opened at local hospitals. In the Austrian Monarchy, Carniola was no exception. The Red Cross organised special courses for nurses with the promise of salary, retirement benefits and possibility of vacation. Austrian propaganda portrayed war nurses as heroines, and at least part of the public perceived them as a personification of motherly care and love which could be compared with the sacrifices of the soldiers. However, war nurses also represented modern women who successfully avoided social control and headed towards imminent danger in the battlefield. In the public doubts about their morality emerged, as nurses had direct contact with soldiers and were especially close to doctors. With their presence they invaded the dichotomy between public/battlefront-private/home front. The image of war nurses clearly reveals the awkward relationships between the attitudes to war and women as well as the rapidly changing values in times of war.

Author Biography

Irena Selišnik, University of Ljubljana
Department of History, docent


Cergol Paradiž, Ana. »The Protection of Mothers and Children as a Eugenic Measure in Ljubljana.« Revista de Antropologie Urbana 3, št. 5 (2015): 54−62.

Darow, Margaret H. »French Volunteer Nursing and the Myth of War Experiance in World War I.« American Historical Review 101, št. 1 (1996): 80−106.

Grayzel, Susan R. Women and the First World War. Abingdon, New York: Routledge, 2002.

Hämmerle, Christa. »"Mentally broken, physically a wreck…": Violence in War Accounts of Nurses in Austro-Hungarian Service.« V: Gender and the First World War, ur. Christa Hämmerle, Oswald Überegger in Birgitta Bader-Zaar, 89−107. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.

Hämmerle, Christa. Heimat/Front. Geschlechtergeschichte/n des Ersten Weltkrieges in Österreich-Ungarn. Wien, Köln, Weimar: Böhlau Verlag, 2014.

Rachamimov, Alon. »"Female Generals" and "Siberian Angels": Aristocratic Nurses and the Austro-Hungarian POW Relief.« V: Gender and War in Twentieth-Century Eastern Europe, ur. Nancy M. Wingfield in Maria Bucur, 23−46. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.

Reddy, William M. »The Rule of Love: The History of Western Romantic Love in Comparative Perspective.« V: New Dangerous Liaisons, Discourses on Europe and Love in the Twentieth Century, ur. Luisa Passerini, Liliana Ellena in Alexander C.T. Geppert, 33−57. New York: Berghahn Books, 2010.

Roberts, Mary Louis. Civilization Without Sexes: Reconstructing Gender in Postwar France, 19171927. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Salm-Reifferscheidt, Franziska. »Frauen in der Kriegskrankenpflege im Ersten Weltkrieg am Beispiel der Rotkreuzschwester Marianne Jarka.« Diplomsko delo, Universität Wien, 2010.

Šuštar, Branko. »Od strežniških tečajev do strežniške in bolničarske šole 1908-1945.« V: Šola za sestre: Zdravstveno šolstvo na Slovenskem (1753−1992), ur. Branko Šuštar, 35-41. Ljubljana: Slovenski šolski muzej, 1992.

Thébaud, Francoise. »The Great War and the Triumph of Sexual Divison.« V: A History of Domen in the West: Volume V: Toward a Cultural Identity in the Twentieth Century, ur. Françoise Thébaud, 21−75. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994.

Zeldin, Theodor. An intimate history of Humanity. London: Vintage Books, 1998.