The Creation of the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool

  • Sašo Slaček Brlek Social Communications Research Centre of the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana
Keywords: Yugoslavia, Non-aligned movement, Tanjug, Non-aligned news agencies pool


The article focuses on the process that led to the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool (NANAP) being established and the factors shaping its emergence. The author explains NANAP’s emergence by referring to three groups of factors. The first is the interests and strategies of Yugoslav political elites and of Yugoslavia’s Tanjug news agency. While Tanjug was interested in increasing its global reach and position in the global marketplace of news agencies, the federal political elites saw Tanjug as an important foreign policy tool. Yugoslavia was actively pushing to institutionalise informational cooperation within the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) already in the run-up to the 4th NAM summit in Algiers, even though the objective conditions were deemed minimal. The second factor is changes in international relations given that NANAP developed in the context of the institutionalisation of NAM in the 1970s and its efforts to build “self-reliance” so as to increase its position within the global economy and bargaining power vis-à-vis the developed countries. NANAP therefore recontextualised Tanjug’s bilateral news exchange agreements into a multilateral project of economic cooperation within NAM, aimed at strengthening mutual understanding and gaining independence from global (primarily Western) news sources. Finally, NANAP’s development was shaped by the movement’s institutional history as NANAP was conceived and institutionalised in the mould of pre-existing forms of economic cooperation. To respect the movement’s decentralised ethos, Yugoslavia had to downplay and disguise its significant level of involvement in establishing NANAP and other forms of informational cooperation and to present them as multilateral projects with broad support within NAM.


Arrighi, Giovanni. Adam Smith in Beijing. London and New York: Verso, 2007.

Boyd-Barret, Oliver. “Western News Agencies and the ‘Media Imperialism’ Debate: What Kind of Data-Base.” Journal of International Affairs 3, No. 2 (1981): 247–60.

Boyd-Barrett, Oliver and Daya Thussu. Contra-Flow in Global News: International and Regional News Exchange Mechanisms. London: John Libbey, 1992.

Cizelj, Boris. Ekonomsko sodelovanje med deželami v razvoju: Teorija in praksa kolektivne opore na lastne sile. Ljubljana: Komunist, 1982.

Coordinating Committee. News Agencies Pool of Non-Aligned Countries. New Delhi: Indian Institute of Mass Communication, 1983.

Crain, Matthew. “Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool.” In: Encyclopaedia of Social Movement Media. Ed. John D. H. Downing, 367–69. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2011.

Dinkel, Jürgen. Die Bewegung Bündnisfreier Staaten: Genese, Organisation und Politik (1927–1992). Oldenbourg: De Gruyter, 2015.

Gosovic, Branislav. UNCTAD - Conflict and Compromise. Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff, 1972.

Harris, Phil. “Le monde des agences de presse.” International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems, 11. Paris: UNESCO, 1978.

Ivačić, Pero. “The Flow of News: Tanjug, the Pool, and the National Agencies.” Journal of Communication 28, No. 4 (1978): 157–62.

Ivačić, Pero. “Toward a Freer and Multidimensional Flow of Information.” In: The Third World and Press Freedom. Ed. P. C. Horton, 135–50. New York: Praeger, 1978b.

Jakovina, Tvrtko. Treća strana hladnog rata. Croatia: Fraktura, 2011.

Jakubowicz, Karol. “Third World News Cooperation Schemes in Building a New International Communication Order: Do They Stand a Chance?.” Gazette 36 (1985): 81–93.

Lemberg, Diana. Barriers Down: How American Power and Free-Flow Policies Shaped Global Media. New York: Columbia University Press, 2019.

MacBride Commission. Many Voices, One World. Paris: Unesco, 1980.

Mankekar, D. R. One Way Free Flow. Neo-Colonialism via News Media. New Delhi: Clarion books, 1978.

Masmoudi, Mustapha. “The New World Information Order.” Journal of Communication 29, No. 2 (1979): 172–79.

Pavlič, Breda and Cees J. Hamelink. The New International Economic Order: Links between Economics and Communications. Paris: UNESCO, 1985.

Pinch, Edward T. “The Flow of News: An Assessment of the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool.” Journal of Communication 28, no. 4 (1978): 163–71.

Roach, Colleen. “French Press Coverage of the Belgrade UNESCO Conference.” Journal of Communication 31, No. 4 (1981): 175–87.

Roach, Colleen. “The US Position on the New World Information and Communication Order.” Journal of Communication 37, No. 4 (1987): 36–51.

Robinson, Gertrude J. “Tanjug: Yugoslavia’s Multi-Faceted National News Agency.” PhD diss., University of Illinois, 1968.

Robinson, Gertrude J. “Foreign News Selection Is Non-Linear in Yugoslavia’s Tanjug Agency.” Journalism Quarterly 47, No. 2 (1970): 340–51.

Sauvant, Karl P. “Toward the New International Economic Order.” In: The New International Economic Order: Confrontation of Cooperation between North and South. Ed. Karl P. Sauvant and Hajo Hasenpflug, 3–19. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1977.

Sauvio, Roberto. “From New International Information Order to New Information Market Order.” In: From NWICO to WSIS: 30 Years of Communication Geopolitics. Eds. Divina Frau-Meigs, Jeremie Nicey, Michael Palmer, Julia Pohle and Patricio Tupper, 231–34. Bristol and Chicago: Intellect, 2013.

Schiller, Herbert I. Communication and Cultural Domination. New York: International Arts and Science Press, 1976.

Splichal, Slavko and France Vreg. Množično komuniciranje in razvoj demokracije. Ljubljana: Komunist, 1986.

Tanjug. Tanjug 1943–1963. Beograd: Tanjug, 1963.

Thompson, Mark. Forging War: The Media in Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Hercegovina. Luton: University of Luton Press, 1999.

Van Dinh, Tran. “Non-Alignment and Cultural Imperialism.” The Black Scholar: Journal of Black Studies and Research 8, No. 3 (1976): 39–49.

Verghese, George. “Press Censorship under Indira Gandhi.” In The Third World and Press Freedom. Ed. P. C. Horton, 220–30. New York: Praeger, 1978.


Funding data