Contributions to Contemporary History <p><em>Contributions to Contemporary History</em> is one of the central Slovenian scientific historiographic journals, dedicated to publishing articles from the field of contemporary history (the 19th and 20th century).</p> <p>It has been published regularly since 1960 by the <a title="Institute of Contemporary History" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute of Contemporary History</a>, and until 1986 it was entitled Contributions to the History of the Workers' Movement.</p> <p>The journal is published three times per year in Slovenian and in the following foreign languages: English, German, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Italian, Slovak and Czech. The articles are all published with abstracts in English and Slovenian as well as summaries in English.</p> <p>The archive of past volumes is available at the <a title="History of Slovenia - SIstory" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>History of Slovenia - SIstory</strong></a> web portal.</p> <p><strong>The printed version of the journal</strong> is available at the Institute of Contemporary History, in humanities literature bookstores and through the Institute website (publications &gt;&gt; <a title="Publications Ordering" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Publications Ordering</a>).</p> <p>Further information and guidelines for the authors are available <a title="Informacije za avtorje" href="/index.php/pnz/about/submissions#authorGuidelines" target="_self">here</a>.</p> <p><a title="Ethical Principles" href="/pnz/ethics" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ethical Principles</a>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a title="Creative Commons" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a title="The Effect of Open Access" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ul> (Jure Gašparič, PhD) (Neja Blaj Hribar) Fri, 20 May 2022 13:37:49 +0200 OJS 60 Editorial Remarks Igor Vobič Copyright (c) 2022 Igor Vobič Tue, 10 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Uredniška beseda Igor Vobič Copyright (c) 2022 Igor Vobič Tue, 10 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Socialist Yugoslavia’s Efforts to Democratize International and Intercultural Communication: A Reappraisal <p align="justify"><em>In this article, I present an annotated (re)reading of some of my research and writings on mass communication and the development of socialist democracy in Yugoslavia published during the last two decades of the existence of this multinational federation before its sudden and violent collapse. The article is conceived as a reappraisal of key ideas and results of some empirical research I designed and conducted in the 1970s and 1980s until Slovenia’s independence in 1991. They include many diverse topics, such as communication between republics in Yugoslavia, foreign radio propaganda and the performance of the Tanjug news agency, news gathering and editorial gate-keeping, and development of communication science as a scientific discipline in Yugoslavia.</em></p> Slavko Splichal Copyright (c) 2022 Slavko Splichal Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Creation of the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool <p align="justify"><em>The article focuses on the process that led to the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool (NANAP) being established and the factors shaping its emergence. The author explains NANAP’s emergence by referring to three groups of factors. The first is the interests and strategies of Yugoslav political elites and of Yugoslavia’s Tanjug news agency. While Tanjug was interested in increasing its global reach and position in the global marketplace of news agencies, the federal political elites saw Tanjug as an important foreign policy tool. Yugoslavia was actively pushing to institutionalise informational cooperation within the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) already in the run-up to the 4<sup>th</sup> NAM summit in Algiers, even though the objective conditions were deemed minimal. The second factor is changes in international relations given that NANAP developed in the context of the institutionalisation of NAM in the 1970s and its efforts to build “self-reliance” so as to increase its position within the global economy and bargaining power vis-à-vis the developed countries. NANAP therefore recontextualised Tanjug’s bilateral news exchange agreements into a multilateral project of economic cooperation within NAM, aimed at strengthening mutual understanding and gaining independence from global (primarily Western) news sources. Finally, NANAP’s development was shaped by the movement’s institutional history as NANAP was conceived and institutionalised in the mould of pre-existing forms of economic cooperation. To respect the movement’s decentralised ethos, Yugoslavia had to downplay and disguise its significant level of involvement in establishing NANAP and other forms of informational cooperation and to present them as multilateral projects with broad support within NAM.</em></p> Sašo Slaček Brlek Copyright (c) 2022 Sašo Slaček Brlek Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Normative Role Orientations of Yugoslav Journalists <p><em>The goal of this study was to investigate normative role orientations of journalists in SFRY, as stated or implied in five Yugoslav journalism ethics codes. By applying the method of document analysis and the comparative historical method, we established the reasons for adopting the first code, analysed the codes’ conceptualisations of (the relation between) freedom and responsibility, and determined how the codes addressed truthfulness and professional norms. The normative foundations of journalism, as outlined in ethics codes, have been transforming over time and along changes in the socio-political-legal-economic environment. Media /journalistic freedom had only been permitted within the limits of the socialist orientation and contribution to the building and development of the self-managing society, at least until 1988, when values of Marxism and Leninism and defining a journalist as a socio-political worker were deleted. A journalist was obliged to follow his socialist conscience and was responsible to the working people, to the socialist public, but the codes in the 1980s stressed his responsibility to the public. While displaying several characteristics of the Soviet-totalitarian theory of the press, normative foundations also bear some resemblance to the social responsibility theory. Professional norms related to truthfulness, professional integrity, and respect for human personality and dignity have been evolving over time, gaining more space, elaboration and emphasis. The fact that some professional norms have been recognized by the journalistic community as sufficiently significant to be codified indicates that the foundations of the professionalization of Slovenian journalism were laid in the socialist Yugoslavia already.</em></p> Melita Poler Kovacic Copyright (c) 2022 Melita Poler Kovacic Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Journalist's Action in Socialist Yugoslavia <p><em>In this paper, we analyse the language game “the journalist as a socio-political worker”, which was the professional label for journalists’ action in the former socialist Yugoslavia. The text is divided into two main parts. The first part uses a historical-conceptual method to analyse the mentioned formulation in normative texts, covering programmatic and engaged texts produced at the time. This approach seeks to enter into the meaning of the term from the inside, into the pulse and spirit of the time, and above all to understand what its creators wished to achieve and communicate with this expression. We find that journalism and the journalist’s action as a socio-political worker were understood as an important political factor, as a political force on one hand contributing to the development and implementation of a new socio-political order, i.e., a socialist community based on self-management and, on the other hand, the journalist who through their own products tried to influence the broader consciousness of the masses, as manifested through the idea of the education for the new man: the self-manager. The second part of the paper complements the first since through the qualitative method of in-depth semi-structured interviews with former journalists who had been professionally active in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and via their recollections, we continue to internally reconstruct the meaning, understanding and use of the formulation at that time. In particular, we observe the relationship with politics that the concept essentially contains. Empirical analysis thus led us to different conclusions: some interviewees (the minority) described the term affirmatively, that the journalist as a socio-political worker had a special mission, while most approached the use and meaning of the expression with a critical distance, namely, that the journalist as a socio-political worker was harnessed to the needs of daily politics and thereby seen as non-autonomous in their labour and actions. </em></p> Nina Žnidaršič Copyright (c) 2022 Nina Žnidaršič Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Remembering Tanjug <p><em>Historically, the role of journalism in society is bound to the prevailing conceptualization of the freedom of the press, specific societal, institutional, and material conditions of news production. This study explores self-perceptions of journalists working in the period of socialist Yugoslavia and synthetizes their recollections of journalistic orientations and performances with respect to journalism’s place in society. The study is based on the oral history interviews with former journalists, who worked also as editors and foreign correspondents from late 1950s to 1990s at the news agency Tanjug, which was considered the information backbone of the federal media system in Yugoslavia and had considerable international relevance. By combining ‘journalistic roles’ studies as well as ‘occupational life history’ research this historical study makes twofold contribution. First, it identifies adaptive strategies of remembering used by the interviewed journalists to legitimize themselves as professionals and relevant interpreters of SFRY journalism. Second, it reveals more nuances within common, often simplified understandings of journalists as collaborators with power during socialism, and highlights roles of privileged disseminator, monitoring analyst, and educator as specific manifestations of collaborative function of journalism.</em></p> Igor Vobič, Kristina Milić, Ana Milojević Copyright (c) 2022 Igor Vobič, Kristina Milić, Ana Milojević Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Remembering Media and Journalism in Socialist Yugoslavia <p><em>In recent decades, memory studies have become a prominent interdisciplinary field of research, with several studies focusing on the specifics of socialist Yugoslavia and its demise. Less attention, however, has been paid to the media and journalism in the life and functioning of the state. This study explores what role these central social institutions played in everyday lives of the population, what level of trust they enjoyed amongst them, and how they influenced the proccesses of formation of collective and individual memory in socialist Yugoslavia. We address these issues by analysing 96 semi-structured oral history interviews with media audiences. Interviewees had personal recollections of this era, since they lived in socialist Yugoslavia most of their lives, and could therefore provide unique and valuable insights not available by other means. Interpretative analysis was done with deductive coding of the interviews and was separated into three parts: everyday media use; trust in the media and journalism; and perceptions of socialist Yugoslavia. We resorted to some broad generalisations, which enabled us to give a short overview of the dataset, while also indicating their value for&nbsp; future research. In general, this data provides a much more nuanced picture of the socialist past than it is usual in today’s polarised public discussion. </em><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Jernej Kaluža, Jernej Amon Prodnik Copyright (c) 2022 Jernej Kaluža, Jernej Amon Prodnik Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 »Eritreja, moja dežela« <p><em>The article analyses the representation of distant others in Eritreja photoreporatge, which ran for ten consecutive issues in Mladina magazine between August and November 1988 and is considered to be the most extensive photoreportage ever to be published in Slovene printed media. Multimodal framing analysis, complemented by semi-structured interviews with authors, is applied to examine verbal and visual strategies for construction of otherness. Eritreja’s divergence from dominant news topics on the subject (famine and war) and its positive representations of the distant other are traced to photoreportage’s resonance within domestic political agenda (Slovene struggle against Yugoslav centralisation) and Mladina’s editorial policy (advocating freedom of speech via attacks on Yugoslavia’s public taboo topics).</em></p> Ilija Tomanić Trivundža Copyright (c) 2022 Ilija Tomanić Trivundža Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 “The Case of Comrade Dragiša Pavlović” <p><em>The article deals with the question of the homogeneity of the Yugoslav media landscape, which is already considered to be distinctly republican in modern literature and newspapers. From a variety of topics in the politically heated 1980s, the authors chose reports on events at the Eighth Plenum of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Serbia as the basis for analysis. The rare Yugoslav political weeklies reported on this issue most extensively and in detail, and article deals with presenting and analyzing their discourse. The analysis suggests that the political weeklies focused on the republican environment but, because of the extensive network of connections between the media outlets and journalists in question, were significantly more Yugoslav-oriented than they were thought at the time of publication.</em></p> Jurij Hadalin, Marko Zajc Copyright (c) 2022 Jurij Hadalin, Marko Zajc Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200