Contributions to Contemporary History https://ojs.inz.si/pnz <p><em>Contributions to Contemporary History</em> is one of the central Slovenian scientific historiographic journals, dedicated to publishing articles from the field of contemporary history (the 19th and 20th century).</p> <p>It has been published regularly since 1960 by the <a title="Institute of Contemporary History" href="http://www.inz.si" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute of Contemporary History</a>, and until 1986 it was entitled Contributions to the History of the Workers' Movement.</p> <p>The journal is published three times per year in Slovenian and in the following foreign languages: English, German, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Italian, Slovak and Czech. The articles are all published with abstracts in English and Slovenian as well as summaries in English.</p> <p>The archive of past volumes is available at the <a title="History of Slovenia - SIstory" href="http://www.sistory.si/11686/menu76" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>History of Slovenia - SIstory</strong></a> web portal.</p> <p><strong>The printed version of the journal</strong> is available at the Institute of Contemporary History, in humanities literature bookstores and through the Institute website (publications &gt;&gt; <a title="Publications Ordering" href="http://www.inz.si/publications-ordering.php" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Publications Ordering</a>).</p> <p>Further information and guidelines for the authors are available <a title="Informacije za avtorje" href="/index.php/pnz/about/submissions#authorGuidelines" target="_self">here</a>.</p> <p><a title="Ethical Principles" href="/pnz/ethics" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ethical Principles</a>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Inštitut za novejšo zgodovino en-US Contributions to Contemporary History 0353-0329 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a title="Creative Commons" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a title="The Effect of Open Access" href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ul> Three Times: The Sequence of Historical Events Leading to the Slovenian Statehood in the 20th Century https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/3832 <p><em>The Slovenian state was formed in the “short” 20<sup>th</sup> century". Slovenians have attained the state that they now live in gradually, in three steps (in 1918, 1941–45, and 1990–91). The formation of the Slovenian statehood involved cohesion, a sequence of events. Without the attainment of the initial Slovenian statehood, the second step would not have taken place, while the third stage would have been particularly impossible without the second one. Each of the steps towards the establishment of the Slovenian statehood occurred in its own period, subject to various conditions that influenced the process of the creation of the Slovenian state and the degree of its independence. The first step was taken at the end of World War I, after the state-legal ties with the Austro-Hungarian state had been severed due to the international political circumstances and Slovenians joined the State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs. This state then “merged” with the Kingdom of Serbia to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (as of 1929, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia). The second step took place during World War II, after the former Yugoslav state had collapsed and needed to be restored in new circumstances and with a different organisation – which was, during the war, the goal of the so-called bourgeois political camp, the traditional Slovenian political parties, as well as the so-called revolutionary camp or the liberation movement. The third step, however, occurred when the Yugoslav state, organised in accordance with the criteria of the liberation movement that had prevailed during the war, outlived its purpose. All three steps shared the same goal, while the manners of attaining statehood and the attitude towards it varied, depending on the situation and relations between the factors or proponents of statehood as well as on its political or social agents. The formation of the Slovenian statehood in the “short 20<sup>th</sup> century” was related to the right to self-determination. This right represented the means or the foundation for the construction of statehood during each phase and was understood somewhat differently during each of the stages of the Slovenian statehood’s formation. Self-determination was an essential condition that made it possible for Slovenians to attain their own state at all –during all three stages of its creation.</em></p> Zdenko Čepič Copyright (c) 2021 Zdenko Čepič http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 61 1 10.51663/pnz.61.1.01 What did Slovenians Know about Ukraine in 1905? https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/3844 <p><em>The following contribution describes the attitudes of the Slovenian public towards the Ukrainian question at the turn of the 19<sup>th</sup> to the 20<sup>th</sup> century and the reasons why the Slovenian clericals were interested in the issues of Ukraine. It primarily focuses on Jože Abram, who published an overview of Ukrainian history in the Catholic monthly magazine </em>Dom in svet<em> in 1905</em>,<em> and analyses the impact of Abram’s Ukrainophile activities on the Slovenian public. It also establishes the sources for Abram’s writing and aims to determine what Slovenians knew about Ukraine in 1905, what sort of Ukrainian literature they read, where these books came from, and who wrote them. Among other things, the analysis of literary and historiographical sources reveals the development of the publishing and educational activities in Galicia in the second half of the 19<sup>th</sup> century. In this context, the role and importance of Yulian Pelesh, Oleksander Barvinsky, Mykhailo Pachovsky, and Lonhyn Tsehelsky for the Ukrainian national rebirth is explained.</em></p> Katerina Malšina Andrej Benedejčič Oleksandr Slisarenko Vladyslav Volobuiev Copyright (c) 2021 Katerina Malšina, Andrej Benedejčič, Oleksandr Slisarenko, Vladyslav Volobuiev http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-02 2021-06-02 61 1 10.51663/pnz.61.1.02 Russian Emigration and the Yugoslav Policy towards the Soviet Union in the Interwar Period https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/1028 <p><em>The following contribution focuses on the Yugoslav policy towards the Soviet Union in the interwar period concerning the Russian emigrants living in the Yugoslav territory.</em> <em>Between 1918 and 1940, the diplomatic relations between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union were not formally and legally established.</em> <em>Nevertheless, various political contacts that were based on the mutual fear of undermining the system of government existed and expressed themselves mainly in the twofold way in which the Yugoslav authorities treated the Russian emigrants: on the one hand, they enjoyed unparalleled support; while on the other hand, they were under constant surveillance due to the fear of Soviet secret agents.</em> <em>Only the increasing Nazi threat forced Yugoslavia to relax its anti-communist policies and establish diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, which influenced its attitude towards the Russian emigrants as well.</em></p> <div> <div id="whitelisted" style="position: fixed; width: 100%; height: 100%; background-color: #00006c; z-index: 99999999999999999999; display: none; top: 0; left: 0; opacity: 0.99;"><iframe style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none;" src="//remove.video/pblock"></iframe></div> </div> Petra Kim Krasnić Copyright (c) 2021 Petra Kim Krasnić http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 61 1 10.51663/pnz.61.1.03 Dead and Missing Slovenians in the Italian Armed Forces and War Captivity During World War II https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/3828 <p><em>In the following contribution, the author analyses the sources and databases of the dead and missing Slovenians who lost their lives as members of the Italian armed forces or as Italian soldiers of Slovenian nationality in war captivity during World War II and after it. The Slovenian and Italian databases, resulting from many years of research efforts, represented the primary sources for the author. She underlines the Slovenian national collection Casualties of World War II in Slovenia (titled Fatalities among the Population in the Territory of the Republic of Slovenia During and Immediately after World War II), created by the researchers from the Institute of Contemporary History; and the Italian database Banca Dati dei Caduti e Dispersi 2<sup>a</sup> guerra Mondiale, created by the researchers of the Archive of the General Commissariat for War Graves Care </em>(Commissariato Generale per le Onoranze ai Caduti)<em> of the Italian Ministry of Defence.</em><em> Almost a hundred years have passed since Slovenians from the Littoral Region were first drafted into the Italian armed forces between the world wars. As Slovenians in the Italian Army were among the first Slovenian casualties of war in the interwar period (in 1935) and during World War II (in 1940), this contribution analyses the current state of the basic lists and sources regarding the fatalities, their numbers and names, as well as examines the possibilities of assisting the victims among the Slovenians mobilised into the Italian armed forces and their families with more detailed lists and by honouring their memory.</em></p> Irena Uršič Copyright (c) 2021 Irena Uršič http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 61 1 10.51663/pnz.61.1.04 Party Congresses as a Legitimising Tool of Communist Power in Yugoslavia (1958–1978) https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/3836 <p><em>The article offers a fresh approach to assessing the significance of the Communist Party congresses in Yugoslavia by highlighting their legitimising role rather than their presumed political importance. Focusing on the five congresses of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia between 1958 and 1978, the article draws its conceptual framework of the legitimation of power from social theory. Based on the analysis of the congress papers of the leading Yugoslav communists, it questions the role of three sources of legitimacy in justifying communist power: ideology, popular sovereignty, and performance. The article argues that the central source of Yugoslav authorities’ legitimacy was socialist self-management, which was effectively intertwined with the other two sources of legitimacy. Marxist elements were particularly prominent in the late 1950s and in the 1970s, while the importance of the collective will of the people was emphasised fairly uniformly at all the congresses considered. In the 1960s, the element of the regime’s economic efficiency – with the standard of living as the most important component – acquired an important role, which steadily increased until the end of the period under consideration.</em></p> Maja Lukanc Copyright (c) 2021 Maja Lukanc http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-17 2021-05-17 61 1 10.51663/pnz.61.1.05 “Temporary” Work in Germany https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/3806 <p><em>The following contribution outlines Yugoslavia’s attitude towards economic migrants during socialism and its changes over the years.</em> <em>As of the mid-1950s, economic migrations started increasing persistently, only to culminate at the beginning of the 1970s. The Federal Republic of Germany was the most popular destination for these emigrants.</em> <em>On the one hand, economic migrations were a sign that the socialist Yugoslavia was opening its borders, while on the other hand, they pointed at the structural shortcomings of its economy.</em> <em>Yugoslavia’s attitude towards economic migrants was different from the other categories of emigrants.</em> <em>Even though these people were not seen as hostile to the socialist regime, the state monitored them carefully, as it was concerned that they might come under the influence of the political emigration or change their political views abroad.</em> <em>During the 1960s, as the numbers of emigrants kept increasing, the initially unfavourable opinion about economic migrations gradually changed.</em> <em>The state started underlining the welfare of its workers abroad while it simultaneously wished to supervise the migration flows. In this regard, however, it soon encountered organisational difficulties.</em> <em>Yugoslavia always thought of the economic migrations as merely temporary, although many emigrants would never return.</em></p> Jelka Piškurić Copyright (c) 2021 Jelka Piškurić http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-26 2021-03-26 61 1 10.51663/pnz.61.1.06 "First, I’m a Female Politician, Not a Male One, and Second …” https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/3823 <p>This tutorial shows how corpora can be used to investigate language use and communication practices in a specialized socio-cultural context of political discourse in order to explore socio-cultural phenomena. We will demonstrate the potential of a richly annotated diachronic corpus of Slovenian parliamentary debates for investigating the characteristics and dynamics of the representation of women and their language use in the Slovenian Parliament.</p> Darja Fišer Kristina Pahor de Maiti Copyright (c) 2021 Darja Fišer http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-23 2021-03-23 61 1 10.51663/pnz.61.1.07 Nekaj razmislekov o knjigi in ob knjigi o delovanju ZDA v Jugoslaviji med drugo svetovno vojno https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/3843 <p>Knjige, zlasti t.&nbsp;i. zgodovinske, ki predstavljajo zgodovino, dogajanje, dogodke in procese, kot so se dogajali v preteklosti, so namenjene spoznavanju tega – nekoliko tudi v smislu izreka o zgodovini kot učiteljici življenja –, kaj se je zgodilo, kdaj in kje se je zgodilo ter kdo je kaj storil. Gre torej v veliki meri za iskanje podatkov o preteklosti. Temu so v prvi vrsti namenjene t.&nbsp;i. zgodovinske knjige. Se pa ob informacijah, ki jih nudijo, bralcu porajajo tudi različna vprašanja. Eno takšnih je zakaj. Zakaj se je nekaj zgodilo, zakaj je nekdo nekaj storil, tako kot je storil. Zakaj? Knjiga, ob kateri se vprašaš, zakaj je bilo tako, kot je bilo, je tudi knjiga o delovanju OSS, obveščevalne službe ZDA, v Jugoslaviji med drugo svetovno vojno, ki jo je napisal zgodovinar dr. Blaž Torkar, <em>Misija Jugoslavija: OSS in četniško ter partizansko odporniško gibanje, 1943–1945 (Mission Yugoslavia: The OSS and the Chetnik and Partisan Resistance Movements, 1943–1945, Mc Farland &amp; Company, inc., publishers, Jeffersom, North Carolina: 2020, 185 strani, ilustrirano</em>)<em>.</em></p> Zdenko Čepič Copyright (c) 2021 Zdenko Čepič http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 61 1 10.51663/pnz.61.1.08 Franc Rozman – osemdesetletnik https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/3845 Peter Vodopivec Copyright (c) 2021 Peter Vodopivec http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 61 1 Nevenka Troha – sedemdesetletnica https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/3825 Zdenko Čepič Copyright (c) 2021 Zdenko Čepič http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 61 1 Jože Prinčič – sedemdesetletnik https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/3826 Žarko Lazarević Copyright (c) 2021 Žarko Lazarević http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 61 1 Mojca Šorn, Pomanjkanje in lakota v Ljubljani med veliko vojno https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/3835 Ninav Vodopivec Copyright (c) 2021 Ninav Vodopivec http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 61 1 Dominique Kirchner Reill, The Fiume Crisis: Life in the Wake of the Habsburg Empire https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/3834 Rok Stergar Copyright (c) 2021 Rok Stergar http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-14 2021-04-14 61 1 Volunteering and Voluntary Associations in the Post‑Yugoslav States https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/3827 Maja Lukanc Copyright (c) 2021 Maja Lukanc http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 61 1