Contributions to Contemporary History https://ojs.inz.si/pnz <p><em>Contributions to Contemporary History</em> is one of the central Slovenian scientific historiographic journals, dedicated to publishing articles from the field of contemporary history (the 19th and 20th century).</p> <p>It has been published regularly since 1960 by the <a title="Institute of Contemporary History" href="http://www.inz.si" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute of Contemporary History</a>, and until 1986 it was entitled Contributions to the History of the Workers' Movement.</p> <p>The journal is published three times per year in Slovenian and in the following foreign languages: English, German, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Italian, Slovak and Czech. The articles are all published with abstracts in English and Slovenian as well as summaries in English.</p> <p>The archive of past volumes is available at the <a title="History of Slovenia - SIstory" href="http://www.sistory.si/11686/menu76" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>History of Slovenia - SIstory</strong></a> web portal.</p> <p><strong>The printed version of the journal</strong> is available at the Institute of Contemporary History, in humanities literature bookstores and through the Institute website (publications &gt;&gt; <a title="Publications Ordering" href="http://www.inz.si/publications-ordering.php" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Publications Ordering</a>).</p> <p>Further information and guidelines for the authors are available <a title="Informacije za avtorje" href="/index.php/pnz/about/submissions#authorGuidelines" target="_self">here</a>.</p> <p><a title="Ethical Principles" href="/pnz/ethics" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ethical Principles</a>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Inštitut za novejšo zgodovino en-US Contributions to Contemporary History 0353-0329 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a title="Creative Commons" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a title="The Effect of Open Access" href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ul> The Linguistic landscape of Lower Styria on Picture Postcards (1890-1920) https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/601 <p><em>Toward the end of the nineteenth century in the multilingual Habsburg Empire, language became an important – if not the most important – ethnic marker in the construction of different national identities. In the linguistically mixed regions of the Empire, language was no longer perceived as simply a tool for communication that could be chosen pragmatically depending on social situations and instead became an emblem of one’s national identity. But how much is really known about how language was actually used in bilingual regions? By using the example of the bilingual Slovene-German speaking region of Lower Styria (Spodnja Štajerska/Untersteiermark), this paper suggests that picture postcards, a rich source available in large qualities, can help shed light on the visibility of language(s) in the public sphere, the social stratification and geographic distribution of languages, the language of formal and informal communication, and also on various forms of bilingualism and language contact. In short, an examination of picture postcards from the turn of the century, a medium close to everyday life, yields insights into the linguistic landscape of Lower Styria and can paint a picture of a region characterized not just by national conflicts but also by peaceful coexistence.</em></p> Karin Almasy Copyright (c) 2019 Karin Almasy http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-11-29 2019-11-29 59 3 Irredentist Actions of the Slovenian Organization of Yugoslav Nationalists (ORJUNA) in Italy and Austria (1922-1930) https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/292 <p><em>This paper aims to examine and analyse the documentation available in the Slovenian Historical Archives and the Croatian State Archives as well as the strategic plans and projects described on the pages of the ORJUNA printed pamphlets and bulletins in order to determine the ideological tenets that formed the basis of the foreign policy as conceived by the Organisation of Yugoslav Nationalists (the ORJUNA). The focus of this paper will be on the irredentist actions taken by the Slovenian branch of the ORJUNA, carried out in the territories of Italy (Trieste, Gorizia, and Istria) and Austria (Carinthia). Special attention will be paid to the ORJUNAVIT (Organisation of Yugoslav Nationalists in Italy) and Fantovska zveza (Slovenian Boys Union) organisations, which were effectively the instruments of the ORJUNA, carrying out its activities in the territories of Italy and Austria. The expansionist ideas that were part of the ORJUNA ideological constructs and their implementation, as manifested through irredentist actions carried out in the territory of Yugoslavia’s neighbouring countries, were firmly rooted in the fundamental ideological foundations of this movement and the specific historical circumstances in which it emerged. The ORJUNA ideologists presented their expansionist agenda to create a Greater Yugoslavia, extending over a vast territory from Varna to Trieste and from Szeged to Thessaloniki, as the ultimate result of the struggle to create a unified and all-encompassing ethnic body of South Slavs. Guided by the imperative of preserving the ethnic identity of the Slovenian population in the provinces bordering on Italy and Austria, the ORJUNA leadership promoted the systematic use of organised violence as the basic tool in the struggle to achieve its goals. Due to the restrained and legitimately-oriented official foreign policy of the Yugoslav governments, as well as in light of the armed resistance of the Italian and Austrian official security forces and paramilitaries, the leadership of the ORJUNA failed to achieve its foreign-political goals through the use of terror. On the other hand, the expansionist ideas that were one of the essential tenets of the ORJUNA’s ideology remained a part of the ideological concepts embraced by all far-right movements for the Yugoslav integralism in the interwar period, which, with slight modifications, adopted the ideological constructs advocated by the ORJUNA.</em></p> Vasilije Dragosavljević Copyright (c) 2019 Vasilije Dragosavljević http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 59 3 Development of Special Education in Slovenia in the Interwar Period With the Emphasis on the Special School in Maribor https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/751 <p><em>The contribution presents the development of special education in Slovenia in the interwar period: from the first special class at the IV City School for Boys in Ljubljana’s district of Prule in 1911 to the development of independent special schools in Ljubljana and Maribor and their efforts for the maximum inclusion of children with mild developmental disabilities into the system of special education, which provided them with primary education and prospects for an independent life. The contribution focuses on the special school in Maribor in the context of a general presentation of special education in Slovenia in the pre-war period.</em></p> Dunja Dobaja Copyright (c) 2019 Dunja Dobaja http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 59 3 Slovenes, Yugoslavia and the beginning of the WW II https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/582 <p><em>In the autumn of 1939, after the establishment of the Banate of Croatia on 26 August 1939, the Catholic camp, which had absolute power in the Drava Banate (Slovenia in the First Yugoslavia), initiated the preparations for the establishment of a separate Banate of Slovenia. In 1939, the opposition – the People’s Front movement – also focused on the question of the state-legal emancipation in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The National Democrats, Christian Socialists, and Communists drew up three very specific, original, and radical autonomist-federalist national programmes. Apart from the national issue, ideological-political orientations were also emphasised in Slovenia. The Catholic camp intensified its ideological struggle not only against liberalism but also against socialism and communism in particular. Simultaneously, a split took place in this movement, as the Christian Socialists severed all ties with the Catholic politics. The ideological standpoint of most of the Catholic camp – the demand for urgent Catholic restoration – was expressed in 1939 at the VI International Christ the King Congress between 25 and 30 July 1939 in Ljubljana. The national defence movement – which encouraged the association of people, societies, and organisations, regardless of their political adherence, to ensure the defence from the external danger of the fascist states and the joint struggle against Hitlerism – was increasingly active. In 1939, the well-known </em>Spominski zbornik Slovenije,<em> a memorial anthology of texts, was published; the University of Ljubljana celebrated its 20<sup>th</sup> anniversary; and, on this occasion, Anton Korošec received the honorary Doctor of Law title.</em><em> In 1939, he also became an honorary citizen of Ljubljana. After the onset of World War II on 1 September 1939, Slovenians were preoccupied with the concern (for many already the conviction) that Yugoslavia would not be able to avoid the conflict. They also focused on the expectations of democratic changes in the state, ideological and political disputes, and the determination to defend Yugoslavia. When over a year and a half later, the new global conflict engulfed the entire Slovenian nation, affecting its ideological and socio-political characteristics, the toughest historical ordeal for Slovenians began, during which they also had to come to terms with themselves.</em></p> Jurij Perovšek Copyright (c) 2019 Jurij Perovšek http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-03 2019-12-03 59 3 Between the Ideal and Reality: Women During World War II in Slovenia https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/750 <p><em>The following article focuses on gender roles during World War II in the Slovenian lands. It outlines a number of identities and motives, both revolutionary and traditional. The revolutionary period was profoundly influenced by the centuries-old anthropological situation – Christianity. World War II transformed gender roles and allowed women to enter the male sphere. They achieved this by resorting to traditional mechanisms with their own rules, laws, and history. The study shows that women gave legitimacy to the National Liberation Movement, which, in turn, provided them with a new social status – one that was much more aligned with tradition than the socialist movement claimed. The stories of female fighters, activists, family members, and undecided bystanders reveal how the occupation shaped the wartime years and how the new Socialist Yugoslavia rose to power.</em></p> Tjaša Konovšek Copyright (c) 2019 Tjaša Konovšek http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-03 2019-12-03 59 3 Urability and Change. Culture of Abortion, Liberalisation of Regulation and Attempts at Sex Education of the People of Yugoslavia (1918–1991) https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/408 <p>The work considers the regulation and practice of family planning in Yugoslavia in the 20th Century. Despite many changes in socio-economic conditions in the country, growth of standard of living and availibility of contraception, for most couples during the whole of the 20th Century abortion, first illegal then legal, remained one of the main „methods“ of spontaneous and short term family planning. Paradoxically, despite liberalisation of sexuality and the sexual revolution after World War 2 and attempts at creating counselling centres, promotion of contraception and the so called „humanization of relations between the sexes“, one of the main successes of state policy in the field of family planning was the decriminalisation of abortion and its „move“ to hospitals and ambulatory care clinics. On the basis of sources from the Archives of Yugoslavia and relevant periodical press and literature, the author will attempt to answer the question why this state policy had such poor results and which motives influenced couples to decide on families with one or two children.</p> Ivana Dobrivojevic Tomic Copyright (c) 2019 Ivana Dobrivojevic Tomic http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-03 2019-12-03 59 3 Common land in modern international historiography https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/319 <p>The following contribution focuses on communal land as seen by the modern international historiography towards the end of the 20<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;and in the beginning of the 21<sup>st</sup>&nbsp;century. The contribution explores the outstanding issue of the economic expediency of collective property and/or use in comparison with private property. The emphasis lies on the question of ownership and property rights with regard to communal land, which is believed to be of crucial importance for the establishment of any communal land's sustainability. Together with the institution of village communities – which, to a greater or lesser extent, make decisions concerning the management of such land – communal land is seen as a phenomenon shaped and altered by the internal and external factors that need to be recognised and understood. A considerable part of the contribution discusses the influence of property and ownership rights on the environment, which should qualify as one of the key topics of environmental history. Furthermore, the role of customs and collective supervision carried out by the village communities in the context of their management functions is explored as one of the topical questions as well.</p> Nikita Meden Copyright (c) 2019 Nikita Meden http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-04 2019-12-04 59 3 O takih in drugačnih zlorabah https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/749 <p>Z veliko zamudo (vzrok je bila priprava obsežne monografije o Mežiški dolini in območju Dravograda med leti 1941–1945) odgovarjam na kritiko zgodbe o Milovanu Ilichu - Kostji (Aljoši), ene od desetih »zgodb« iz moje knjige <em>Koroške vojne zgodbe</em>, ki je zbudila pozornost kolegice zgodovinarke dr. Mateje Jeraj, objavljena pa je bila v drugi številki <em>Prispevkov za novejšo zgodovino 2018</em>.</p> Marjan Linasi Copyright (c) 2019 Marjan Linasi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-04 2019-12-04 59 3 Konečne sami. Národný štát, reprezentácia a suverenita v strednej Európe po roku 1989. https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/581 Tjaša Konovšek Copyright (c) 2019 Tjaša Konovšek http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-05 2019-12-05 59 3 Jurij Perovšek, Slovenski prevrat 1918: položaj Slovencev v Državi Slovencev, Hrvatov in Srbov. https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/331 Miroslav Stiplovšek Copyright (c) 2019 Miroslav Stiplovšek http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-10-01 2019-10-01 59 3 James R. Dow, Heinrich Himmler's Cultural Commissions. Programmed Plunder in Italy and Yugoslavia, Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 2018. 280 strani, 28 črno-belih fotografij. https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/317 <p>Recenzija knjige&nbsp;Jamesa R. Downa:&nbsp; "Heinrich Himmler's Cultural Commissions. Programmed Plunder in Italy and Yugoslavia", Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 2018. 280 strani, 28 črno-belih fotografij.</p> Klemen Kocjancic Copyright (c) 2019 Klemen Kocjancic http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-04 2019-12-04 59 3 Norman Ohler, Popolna omama. Droge v tretjem rajhu, Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, 2019; prevod: Neža Božič. 338 strani. https://ojs.inz.si/pnz/article/view/406 <p>Recenzija knjige Normana Ohlerja "Popolna omama. Droge v tretjem rajhu"</p> Klemen Kocjancic Copyright (c) 2019 Klemen Kocjancic http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-04 2019-12-04 59 3